View post tag: usa View post tag: board Training & Education Task Force to Review Integration of Female Sailors on Board US Subs Commander, Naval Submarine Forces in Norfolk, U.S. established a flag officer-led task force in May to focus on effectively integrating enlisted women Sailors on board multiple submarine platforms.Vice Adm. Michael Connor stood up the task force to specifically look at best integration practices for SSBNs, SSGNs, and VIRGINIA-class SSNs.Commander of Submarine Group Two, Rear Adm. Kenneth Perry is leading the task force. The group is charged with developing a comprehensive Plan of Actions and Milestones (POAM) by January 2014.This POAM will mirror the previous deliberate process used to successfully integrate female officers by including feasibility studies, potential courses of action and candidate timelines. Pending the results, a detailed implementation plan will be presented to the Chief of Naval Operations by March 2015.Female officers have been successfully integrated on board OHIO-Class SSBNs and SSGNs, and will be integrated onboard VIRGINIA-Class SSNs in fiscal year 2015.The Navy is working with industry to design the Ohio replacement SSBN to support both officers and enlisted mixed-gender crews.[mappress]Press Release, June 7, 2013; Image: US Navy View post tag: Integration Share this article June 7, 2013 View post tag: Force View post tag: Female View post tag: Naval View post tag: Navy View post tag: Subs View post tag: sailors View post tag: review Back to overview,Home naval-today Task Force to Review Integration of Female Sailors on Board US Subs View post tag: Task View post tag: US View post tag: News by topic View post tag: Defence
Oscar Garcia, an undocumented student whose parents brought him from Mexico to the United States, told a crowd Monday that the Senate’s failure in December to pass the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act might mean he has to leave the school he loves, since he is not eligible for federal financial aid.Obstacles · Felix Gutierrez, a journalism professor at USC’s Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism, talked about the challenges undocumented students face. – Laura Walsh | Daily Trojan “It would break my heart to leave the Trojans, but it’s an inevitability sometimes,” Garcia said. “Sometimes you have to do things you don’t want to do.”The Latino Student Assembly hosted a panel Monday titled, “America: Where Dreams are Voted On” at the Ronald Tutor Campus Center to inform audience members of the struggles undocumented Californian students could have escaped with the passage of the DREAM Act, which would have provided a pathway to citizenship for students whose parents are illegal immigrants.“Being an undocumented student means a lot of things. I really wanted to travel abroad, but I couldn’t do that — can’t do that,” said Sofia Campos, an undocumented immigrant and co-chair of the Improving Dreams, Equality, Access and Success group at UCLA.Besides being unable to afford university housing and having to commute two hours to school every day, Campos finds it nearly impossible to receive a college education.“Our financial means are really limited,” Campos said. “We cannot receive federal aid, state aid and most scholarships are unavailable to us.”Victor Narro, a professor of law at UCLA, said there are many misconceptions about undocumented students.“We hear misinformation about the nature of the contribution of the immigrant,” Narro said.Felix Gutierrez, a journalism professor at the Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism, said employment is the key. He noted that, even if passed the DREAM Act might not have done enough.“Unless you twin the DREAM Act with employment opportunities, it will not fufill its potential and people will not contribute to society,” Gutierrez said.Students and professors came out of the meeting with positive feelings.“I feel that I am really blessed and I really want to help keep making changes,” said Stephanie Barajas, a freshman majoring in theatre.For supporters who feel similarly, Campos has helped promote the California DREAM Act, an initiative that does not address legalization but could help to provide deserving students with access to institutional aid.“This is something we do believe is possible now,” Campos said. “The governor has come out and supported it, we just need to make sure we get the petitions to his desk and we hold him accountable to sign the bill.”An earlier publication of this article misidentified Oscar Garcia, a sophomore from Mexico. The Daily Trojan regrets the error and has corrected the text above to reflect the accurate information.
The subscription service allows students to select meals to be delivered to their dorm, apartment or home. Massura said the service was created after Everytable’s management noticed that customers tended to buy several meals at a time for themselves and their families to eat throughout the week. Everytable, a Los Angeles-based food company and social enterprise, strives to increase accessibility to healthy meals in underserved communities across the city by offering convenient, wholesome food options. Everytable also offers a “Pay It Forward Wall” program at all of its locations. A customer can choose to pay for an additional meal, write a message on a Post-it note and place it on the designated pay-it-forward board. Then, any customer who visits the store but is unable to pay can select a note from the wall and use it to pay for their meal. “We price our meals according to the average household income of the surrounding area,” said Massura, a 2017 graduate. Everytable was established in 2016 and currently operates seven restaurants in the L.A. area, including one located less than a mile from campus. “We don’t question why people don’t have the money or whether they don’t,” Polk said. “If you come in and you see a Post-it on that board, you can take it down and use it as cash — no questions asked.” Everytable, a Los Angeles-based food company, launched a food subscription service last year to make and deliver healthy and freshly prepared meals at affordable prices to help combat food insecurity. (Photo courtesy of Everytable) Massura said Everytable is addressing food insecurity on college campuses directly and plans to open more locations near other colleges as well, including Santa Monica Community College and CSU Los Angeles. Most college students face a dilemma when it comes to eating at school: It’s all but impossible to find an option that’s convenient, affordable and healthy. Everytable’s subscription program, through which students can order a week of balanced meals at about half the price of similar delivery services, addresses the challenge of eating well with a packed schedule. At the end of 2018, the company piloted a subscription delivery service to cater to customers with packed schedules who may live too far to make daily trips to the brick-and-mortar stores. Several of the more than 200 customers who have since purchased the meal program are USC students. “College food insecurity is a really big issue and one that we’ve sort of been confronting head-on,” Massura said. “We think that just by basically providing healthy food at fast food prices, we can be part of many solutions to this issue.” With the centralized process of food preparation, Everytable saves money by eliminating kitchens from each of its restaurants, reducing the size of each building. The company cuts costs while keeping its food high quality and convenient, Polk said. “Every single day, at a huge kitchen, we have incredible chefs make all these meals from scratch and then package them in grab-and-go containers,” Polk said. “That means when we open a restaurant, like the restaurant on 23rd St., it’s less expensive to build and operate.” “What’s really amazing about this service is first of all, how good and healthy the food is,” Polk said. “A lot of the research that we’ve done around college students is that they’re looking for food that is fresh and healthy, but also, all students are on a budget, and so they need it to be affordable.” “What a lot of our customers are doing is they come in on Sunday or they come in on Monday to our stores, and they stock up for the week,” Massura said. “Subscription was really built as a way to just make that easier for them.” Polk said Everytable owes its low pricing to its business model, which utilizes a centralized kitchen where food is prepared daily and then delivered to each restaurant as well as subscribers around L.A. According to Everytable founder and CEO Sam Polk, the average price of an Everytable meal delivered to a USC address ranges from $5 to $6. Everytable stores located in higher-income neighborhoods like Brentwood sell the same meals at higher prices — typically $7 to $8, according to General Manager of Operations and Subscription Chad Massura. Everytable also operates SmartFridges at various locations around the city, including the Health Sciences Campus. This initiative was launched earlier this year. The refrigerators, which are stocked daily with healthy, locally-prepared meals and accept credit card payment, were created to address the issue of L.A. food deserts, places where fast food may be easily accessible but balanced, high-quality meals are harder to come by.
It’s not the easiest time to be a USC football fan — the team physically can’t win games outside of the Coliseum and I wouldn’t trust offensive coordinator Tee Martin to call my plays in NCAA 14.But I’m not here to rant about the program’s many, many flaws (if you’re still seething from the Utah loss, check out Monday’s edition of “Grinding Gears”). Instead, I’d like to focus on the positives of USC football — like its former players who are no longer hamstrung by an inept coaching staff. Several Trojans are balling out in the big leagues right now, which begs the question: Who is the best former USC player in the NFL right now?I’ll first lay down some criteria. Only current contributions to a team count; prior accomplishments don’t. Packers linebacker Clay Matthews possesses a Hall of Fame-caliber resume, but at age 32, he’s not the fearsome pass rusher he once was. He’s no longer a contender for best NFL Trojan.And in order to weigh different positions evenly, I’ll be judging players based on their raw importance to their teams. For example, Titans defensive lineman Jurrell Casey doesn’t always stuff a stat sheet, but he’s a cornerstone of Tennessee’s defense more so than fellow “Trotan” Adoree Jackson, who has intercepted two passes in 2018. Any inactive or injured players are out of the race.With that said, it’s time to decide who the best Trojan in the NFL is, in order to distract ourselves from an inevitable trip to the Sun Bowl. The contending players will be categorized into three tiers:The Baby TrojansThis section belongs to rookie Trojans who’ve shown flashes of potential, but simply need more time to solidify themselves as NFL stars. This year’s No. 3 overall pick, quarterback Sam Darnold, is the most prominent of the group. Having started all seven games for the Jets, Darnold is still turnover-prone like he was in college (10 interceptions). However, he’s led the Mean Green to three wins — an impressive feat considering the team’s 5-11 finish in each of the past two years.Rounding out the group are pass rusher Uchenna Nwosu (one sack, three QB hits) and running back Ronald Jones, who punched in his first career touchdown Sunday. This trio needs time to see their talents fully realized in the NFL.The Role PlayersUnlike the Baby Trojans, this group features established veterans with major starting roles on their teams. Wide receiver Nelson Agholor and cornerback Adoree Jackson are pushing into the “Superstar” category, but need a few more years of sustained excellence to qualify. A former first-round pick, Agholor got off to a molasses-slow start, averaging 23.1 receiving yards per game in his first two seasons. But in 2017, he became a key weapon on the Super Bowl champion Eagles, racking up 768 yards and eight touchdowns. It’s just his second year as a pro, but Jackson is already ranked as the No. 16 cornerback in the NFL this season, according to Pro Football Focus. He’s well on his way to become an elite corner at this pace.Defensive tackle Antuan Woods and running back Javorius “Buck” Allen were each part of USC’s class of 2015, and both have carved out solid roles for themselves in the NFL. Woods has started all seven games for the Cowboys at nose-tackle, notching 20 tackles and two for loss, while Allen scored three touchdowns in the Ravens’ first three games. Still waiting on a true breakout year, Allen rushed for over 500 yards in 2015 and 2017.The SuperstarsNow, we reach the cream of the crop — the Trojans who are established stars in the NFL. Receiver Robert Woods is the wild card of the Superstar group, as he’s yet to notch a 1,000-yard season. But he broke out in 2017 with 65.1 yards per game, and continued his explosive play into this season. He currently leads the Rams with 602 receiving yards — good for No. 9 in the league.Joining him are perennial defensive stalwarts Leonard Williams and Jurrell Casey. Williams experienced a down year in 2017, notching just two sacks. He’s reemerged as a fearsome rusher in 2018, however, with three sacks in seven games. Casey is one of the longer tenured Trojans in the NFL, having joined the Titans in 2011. Since then, he’s piled up 42.5 sacks and 74 tackles for loss, en route to three career Pro Bowl appearances.Last but not least, Tyron Smith has been the NFL’s premier left tackle this decade. He’s a five-time Pro-Bowler, two-time All-Pro selection and likely future Hall of Famer. The Cowboys offense has sputtered in 2018, but hardly at any fault of Smith’s.The Ultimate TrojanHere we are. It’s finally time to name the best Trojan currently in the NFL. Steelers wide receiver JuJu Smith-Schuster is just a second-year pro, but he’s already managed to build a valuable brand for himself on and off the field. Last season, he was becoming a favorite target of Ben Roethlisberger, leading all rookie receivers with 917 yards and seven touchdowns. Now, he is the favorite target of Roethlisberger. He has more receptions and receiving yards than teammate Antonio Brown, who has more receiving yards than anyone in football since 2010.Smith-Schuster is currently No. 6 in the NFL in receiving yards per game, and his total yards would rank higher if not for the Steelers’ bye week. If he’s not dazzling on the field, he’s probably starring off of it, whether in pizza commercials or YouTube escapades. Yet, he manages to back up his vivacious personality every week. Not only is Smith-Schuster more visible than any former Trojan in the NFL, he’s also the most productive of the group.On top of it all, Smith-Schuster is only 21 years old. His crown of best Trojan in the NFL may be staying put for awhile.Trevor Denton is a junior majoring in broadcast and digital journalism. His column, “T-Time,” runs every other Wednesday.
If Neanderthals interbred with modern humans as early as new findings suggest, the distinction becomes meaningless.“Our first sex with Neanderthals happened 100,000 years ago,” New Scientist shouts. This is a shocking story of a tryst that is steamier than any dime novel. It was announced in Nature by Dr. Sergi Castellano and a research team from Max Planck Institute. Colin Barras reports,It was a two-way street. Many people carry ancient Neanderthal DNA in their genome as a result of cross-species liaisons around 50,000 years ago. Now it seems that some Neanderthals carried our DNA, too.The BBC News agrees with the 100,000-year date for the secret dating encounter, but things gets worse. Where did the liaison take place? According to Live Science, if you guessed the Fertile Crescent, you’re getting warmer.Castellano and his colleagues speculated that the episode of interbreeding they detected may have occurred in the Levant, the eastern Mediterranean region that includes Israel and Syria. Previous research suggested that modern humans and Neanderthals were present in the Levant as early as 120,000 years ago. Another potential location for this interbreeding was Southern Arabia and the area around the Persian Gulf, they added.“The exact place where the gene flow occurred is not settled, but the Near East fits the fossil evidence we currently have,” Castellano told Live Science.This news is worse than the prior week’s announcements that Neanderthal DNA is responsible for some of our modern maladies like depression, allergies and obesity (Science Magazine, PhysOrg). Not that all Neanderthal genes are bad; some seem to increase the immune system, the claim went. But if “interspecies gene flow” between the two groups dates back 120,000 years or more, such distinctions are academic. Species are defined by the ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.And speaking of fertile, isn’t the Fertile Crescent where the Tower of Babel was located? Is that mere coincidence?We mustn’t be racists about this. That wouldn’t be politically correct. Live Science announced that race is a social construct; what else could they say? All humans can intermarry and have children, including Neanderthals. We are their offspring. Get used to it. No more talk about stocky builds and brow ridges. We are Neanderthals, and they are us.It’s time to shame the textbook writers and museums about this. Complain to the curators about their racist depictions of your relatives. Demand removal of the “Neanderthal” n-word as vehemently as you would any other case of racial harassment. Tell them you want the human families depicted accurately in the early man exhibits, with proud upright postures, wise faces and classy outfits. If they won’t do it, demand that the curator put on buckskins and get in the exhibit with his relatives.It’s over, folks. The Neanderthal myth is dead, and with it the mythical timeline of early man evolving upward toward us. The evolutionists have been wrong for over 150 years! Back to the words of the God-fearing, Christ-honoring Joachim Neander, whose name was inadvertently attached to our deceased brethren because he owned the valley where the first bones were found. This one-and-only original Neanderthal man was no stoop-shouldered, bow-legged brute lugging mammoth meat to the cave cookout. He was a man of letters and wisdom, and he was a creationist. His words we can now sing over the debunked myth with added gusto: “Praise to the Lord, the Almighty, the King of Creation.”Praise to the Lord, who, when darkness of sin is abounding,who, when the godless do triumph, all virtue confounding,sheddeth his light,chaseth the horrors of night,saints with his mercy surrounding.(Visited 103 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
The National Treasury announced the official establishment of the New Development Bank (NDB) headquarters in Shanghai, China on 27 February. This marks the completion of legal procedures that will now allow the bank to begin its operations.The South African operation has started a national recruitment process, and the Treasury has encouraged South Africans with the necessary skills and qualifications to apply via its website. (Image: BRICS Business Council, via Facebook)The National Treasury announced the official establishment of the New Development Bank (NDB) headquarters in Shanghai, China on 27 February, which marks the completion of legal procedures that will now allow the bank to begin its operations, in a statement released on 7 March 2016.#China, #BRICS bank sign #documents. Read more: https://t.co/iAtjjnwSuv pic.twitter.com/afZd2Z4vdk— Fakhrul Alam (@fakhrulalam88) February 28, 2016The headquarters was first opened in July 2015, following the formal agreement on the bank’s establishment between BRICS leaders at its fifth annual summit, held in South Africa in 2013.The NDB is busy establishing its Africa Regional Centre in Johannesburg, as outlined by Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan in his 2016 Budget Speech.The South African operation has started a national recruitment process, and the Treasury has encouraged South Africans with the necessary skills and qualifications to apply via its website for a variety of mid- and high-level positions at the institution.South Africa’s first instalment of R2-billion was paid to the bank in December last year, according to the minister’s 2016 Budget Review, and the budget makes provision for further commitments over the medium term.The NDB will begin operations with $50-billion (about R770-billion), which will expand to the full $100-billion in the next five to 10 years.While China may have the largest share of voting rights in the bank with its $41-billion pledged contribution, the South African contribution and its work in the organisation will go a long way to developing the rest of the continent as an emerging economic power.“This initiative,” Gordhan said his address to Parliament, “gives impetus to our role as a financial centre for Africa and will facilitate access to global finance by African investors and institutions.”The bank will focus on lending money to developing countries to help finance infrastructure projects. Economists consider the NDB a viable and necessary alternative to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, one that will bring the focus back to developing the BRICS member nations as well as emerging nations on their respective continents.To achieve this, the bank will support public and private projects through loans, guarantees, equity participation and other financial instruments.This primary focus will complement BRICS’ existing efforts of multilateral and regional financial institutions for global growth and development. The NDB will also co-operate with international organisations and other financial entities, and provide technical assistance for projects to be supported by the bank.The BRICS economies comprise more than 3 billion people – over 40% of the world’s population – and cover more than a quarter of the world’s land area and global gross domestic product.Source: South African Government News Agency
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Frontrow holds fun run to raise funds for young cancer patients Evidence presented at trial showed the 44-year-old Driggers bought 30 of 111 Rugers stolen by gang members in 2015 from a rail car parked in a rail yard and quickly resold 29 of them. Only 19 guns have been recovered.In asking for the maximum sentence of 10 years, prosecutors said Driggers’ actions have contributed to the “very dark place” Chicago finds itself in when it comes to gun violence.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutDriggers on Thursday again denied ever selling guns.Drafted by Celtics in 1996, Driggers appeared in 15 games that season. E.T. returns to earth, reunites with grown-up Elliott in new ad Nonong Araneta re-elected as PFF president View comments Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf PLAY LIST 01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC BSP sees higher prices in November, but expects stronger peso, low rice costs to put up fight CHICAGO — An eight-year prison sentence has been handed to a former Boston Celtics player found guilty of receiving guns stolen off a freight train in Chicago.Nate Driggers was found guilty in April of being a convicted felon in possession of stolen guns.ADVERTISEMENT TOTAL Excellium revs up for the third leg of the Toyota Vios Cup Fire hits houses in Mandaluyong City Read Next MOST READ WATCH: Streetboys show off slick dance moves in Vhong Navarro’s wedding LOOK: Loisa Andalio, Ronnie Alonte unwind in Amanpulo for 3rd anniversary Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. LATEST STORIES
NEW YORK — Dale Scott figures he’ll hear plenty of foul language from angry hitters next season. Such is life for a Major League Baseball umpire.“They’ll still yell at me when a 3-2 slider doesn’t break their way,” he told The Associated Press. “But they’ll be yelling at me because they didn’t like my call, not because I’m a gay umpire.”Two weeks after Jason Collins retired as the NBA’s first openly gay player, Scott added his name to a growing list of gay and lesbian sports figures taking similar public steps. St. Louis Rams draft pick Michael Sam, NBA official Violet Palmer and WNBA star Brittney Griner are among those who have come out in recent years.Scott didn’t want to make a huge announcement heading into his 30th big league season.The trade magazine Referee did a profile on the veteran crew chief in October, and didn’t mention his sexuality. But the 55-year-old Scott wanted to share an important part of his life, and made the choice to include a picture of himself with partner Michael Rausch. They’ve been together for nearly three decades and married in November 2013 in Palm Springs, California.The caption in Referee said: “He and his longtime companion, Michael Rausch, traveled to Australia for the 2014 season opener between the Diamondbacks and Dodgers.”The website Outsports.com later interviewed Scott and posted its story Dec. 2. “It’s not like this was a secret. Major League Baseball knew my situation and it hasn’t had any effect on my career. Zero bearing,” Scott told the AP. “My fellow umpires have known for a long time.”“When I was home or out socially, I was gay,” he said. “In my professional life, I wasn’t. At least, not officially.”Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig praised Scott.“To his friends and colleagues throughout the game, Dale is universally regarded as a class act,” he said in a statement. “All of us at Major League Baseball are very proud of him, just as we have always been.”Scott has been an MLB umpire since 1986. He worked the World Series in 1998, 2001 and 2004, has called three All-Star games and plenty of playoff matchups, including the NL series between St. Louis and the Dodgers in October.“He’s an excellent crew chief and umpire,” MLB umpire Dan Iassogna, who just finished his eighth season working with Scott, told the AP.“But above all, he’s been a true friend to my family and me. I’ve always been proud to walk with him, but never more proud than today,” he said.No big league player or manager has been openly gay during their active career. Glenn Burke and Billy Bean are among the players who later said they were gay, as did umpire Dave Pallone.At the All-Star break last summer, MLB hired Bean as a consultant to help the game achieve greater awareness and equality for the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender community.Scott said he understood coming out “might open a Pandora’s box” when he takes the field next year. “We’ll see when the season starts if this is still an issue,” he said. “I suspect no.”In the immediate aftermath of the story becoming public, Scott said his cell phone and email “blew up” with messages. “They all were all positive, except for one. I know that’s going to happen, I understand it,” he said.Scott met Rausch, an artist, after the 1986 season at a bar in Portland, Oregon. The two now split time between Portland and Palm Springs. When they married, the Mayor of Palm Springs officiated the ceremony.Rausch is listed as Scott’s domestic partner with MLB. The latest contract between the umpires’ union and MLB took effect in 2010 and permitted umps to include domestic partners to allow them to receive benefits.Scott said only once in his career has a player asked if he was gay, and that was through a mutual acquaintance, who brushed off the question.“I’m not saying there aren’t players on teams who haven’t heard things or might’ve had an idea,” he said. “But no one’s ever brought it up to me, or said anything about it to me while yelling at me for calling strike three.”(BEN WALKER, AP Baseball Writer) TweetPinShare0 Shares
Continue Reading Previous FPGAs enable development of safety-critical embedded systemsNext ADLINK demonstrates Fog Computing at embedded world Nowadays the smooth flow of road traffic is significantly dependent on suitable data communication. Optical bypass technology, which functions similar to a railway turnout, protects networks against multiple points of failure. This means if a certain part of the network fails, it will not affect the function of the remaining network. By Thorsten Ebach, EKS Engel Download PDF version of this article There is a requirement for uninterrupted operation for networks in traffic control, as prescribed e.g. in the road tunnel equipment and operation guideline (RABT). But redundancy methods are not suited to meet this requirement, despite switching in only a few milliseconds. The reason is that if multiple failures occur simultaneously an interrupt of the data communication is inevitable. To prevent this, EKS Engel has implemented optical bypass technology, up to now mainly used in traditional IT, into the industrially integrated optical bypass x-light which withstands the harsh environments in traffic control systems. The x-light works in a protocol transparent way and therefore supports Ethernet as well as all field busses and even numerous interfaces like RS-485. The optical bypass also works seamlessly with third-party network devices and can be integrated either in ring or line topologies.Various kinds of traffic-control equipment, e.g. intelligent traffic guidance systems, warning signals for wrong-way drivers, or roadside emergency telephones, constantly monitor the flow of traffic to ensure the highest degree of security. Tunnels are additionally equipped with fire alarm systems and smoke extraction systems. Nowadays nearly all these traffic management systems are linked via fiber optic cables, mainly with single-mode transmission systems featuring attenuation of only 0.3dB per kilometer up to 100km. With transmission-distances up to 5km maximum, mainly multi-mode fiber cables are in use with attenuation 1dB per kilometer. Even in terms of reliability, fiber optics is the measure of all things because it is not sensitive to electromagnetic fields. Fiber optics consists of insulating material, which means data is transmitted via an electric insulator. Therefore, there are no potential equalization currents which are much dreaded in larger extended plants. There is also no risk of damaging connected devices even in the event of direct lightning strikes.Active network components like Ethernet switches or field-bus converters are put through their paces by their manufacturers prior to delivery. But despite this, failures in operation cannot be completely avoided. The main reasons are, apart from incorrect use, problems in hardware and software and power failure.To avoid problems within the network several protection methods are in use. Power failure can be compensated at least for a certain time with an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Software is evaluated or rather validated as well as tested with structure, function, and so-called black-box tests. The magic word in hardware is redundancy, which means that devices, plug connectors, and wiring are present twice. Also, the network has a redundant layout which results in a kind of hot standby effect: if a device or the network itself fails, the system switches automatically over to a redundant one.Figure 1. The x-light bypass is parallel connected to the subscriber via two optical duplex ports. If the subscriber connection fails, it will be physically bridged. But this is often a complex and costly strategy. To solve this problem the ring topology was developed. In a ring topology, the data communication has one direction, but in case of an interruption it works the other direction. This maintains the function of the network. The ring topology, also often used in traffic management systems, builds in redundancy which ensures fast switching, achieving the premier class of safety against failure. In contrast to line topology it can cope with a single point of failure, i.e. the failure of one participant. But if there is a failure of another subscriber or more (multiple points of failure), even ring topology is overstrained. To avoid situations like this, networks are monitored with systems which display the state of the active components, like FiberView, and the condition of the individual fiber transmission lines, to detect excessive attenuation.Optical bypass technology takes one step further because it starts at the network participant level. This could include all devices featuring an optical port. If one of them fails the bypass takes over and maintains the data communication between adjacent participants. Therefore, the only application affected is the one controlled by the failed subscriber. The remaining network continues to be kept in function physically, and therefore works even with multiple points of failure. This is also valid even if the bypass, which is powered either by the protected participant or a separate power supply, no longer receives any power at all.So, how does this work? With optical bypass technology fiber transmission lines are switched over physically immediately after a failure occurs at the respective participant. The principle is similar to railway turnouts working with strong electromagnets: if no current flows the turnout automatically switches and this is why the bypass technology works even without any voltage which is the trick. Since the bypass technology works at the physical level of the network it is protocol transparent and vendor independent.Figure 2. In normal operation, the optical bypass sends the data to the parallel connected subscriber (on top). In the case of failure, data is not transmitted to the output but to the second input (below). X-light is parallel connected to the respective participant via two optical input and output duplex ports. In case of disturbance its differential relay sends a signal to the electrical port of x-light and thereby activates the bypass function. After that the data is not transmitted any longer to the faulty participant but to the next participant in the network, in other words, the participant is bridged physically. To reconnect it safely later on to the network, e.g. after booting, there is an individual adjustable turn-on delay.With optical bypass technology, networks of traffic management systems are not only protected against the effects of hardware and software errors, breakdown of power supply, shortfall of defined values, and so on, but parts of the network can also be specifically disconnected, e.g. for maintenance work. For this purpose, a voltage is applied to the electrical port of the respective bypass and therefore to the linked participant. This disconnects the connected participant physically from the network without the need to disconnect fiber connectors. Disconnecting connectors could eventually cause problems because of dirt particles which could get into the link.An optical bypass is not only of worth in traffic management systems but also in all cases where power failure could cause serious problems. This includes production lines in automotive industry, plants in the petrochemical sector, and wind farms. Since the x-light has been developed as stand-alone device, retrofitting is no problem and neither transmitting protocols nor manufacturer-specific standards play a role. Integrating the bypass function into an Ethernet switch or field bus converter would lose this flexibility despite the fact that it would be possible.Share this:TwitterFacebookLinkedInMoreRedditTumblrPinterestWhatsAppSkypePocketTelegram Tags: Boards & Modules